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international / anarchist movement Wednesday November 11, 2009 16:32 by Deric Shannon and J. Rogue   text 2 comments (last - tuesday november 17, 2009 20:18)
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Anarchism can learn a lot from the feminist movement. In many respects it already has. Anarcha-feminists have developed analyses of patriarchy that link it to the state form. We have learned that no revolutionary project can be complete while men systematically dominate and exploit women; that socialism is a rather empty goal if men's domination of women is left intact.

This essay argues that anarchists can likewise learn from the theory of "intersectionality" that emerged from the feminist movement. Indeed, anarchist conceptions of class struggle have widened as a result of the rise of feminist movements, civil rights movements, gay and lesbian liberation movements, etc. But how do we position ourselves regarding those struggles? What is their relationship to the class struggle? Do we dismiss them as "mere identity politics"?


internacional / imperialismo / guerra Monday October 19, 2009 19:09 by José Antonio Gutiérrez D.   text 2 comments (last - friday october 23, 2009 01:45)
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Jamás he sido muy bueno para las matemáticas, pero el siguiente cálculo es bastante sencillo: súmense 10.000 nuevas tropas a Afganistán, sistemáticas violaciones en las ocupaciones de este país y de Irak, silencio cómplice ante dos genocidios, uno en Gaza, el otro en Sri Lanka (donde aún hay 300.000 seres humanos en campos de concentración), un golpe de Estado en Honduras donde la participación norteamericana ha sido un secreto a voces (aunque les haya salido el tiro por la culata), siete nuevas bases militares en Colombia y ¿qué tenemos de resultado? Un premio Nóbel de la “Paz” para el presidente de EEUU, Barack Obama.

En realidad, no me quita el sueño lo que hagan o dejen de hacer con un premio que vale bien poco, y que el único mérito que cuenta para obtenerlo es el cálculo político. Es verdad que este premio lo han recibido gentes de indudable valor como Pérez Esquivel, Rigoberta Menchú, Martin Luther King o Desmond Tutu. Pero estos casos en verdad son más bien excepcionales...


international / history Friday September 11, 2009 20:53 by Michael Schmidt
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Pinochet and Wojtłya

In June 2009, one of Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet’s most renowned accusers, Judge Juan Salvador Guzmán Tapia, visited South Africa on a speaking tour. Dean of the Law School at the Universidad Central de Chile in Santiago, and also a lecturer in human rights at the School of Journalism at the Universidad de la República, Guzmán was originally a Pinochet supporter, but turned against him after being selected by judicial lottery in 1998 to hear the 186 criminal charges against the man who, until his death in 2006, cast such long shadows over Chilean political life.

For those Chileans who took to the streets of their poblaciones in the early 1970s and mid-1980s to demand the release from Robben Island of Nelson Mandela and for an end to the apartheid regime in South Africa, the rightward shift of the African National Congress (ANC) with its embrace of anti-working-class neoliberalism is likely to be confusing. How did the world’s most celebrated new democracy come to be marred by ongoing violent protests by the poor against “their” government, faced down by police as bloody-minded as before, by continued housing evictions and mass forced removals so evocative of the depths of apartheid (1)? This analysis shall attempt to explain the trajectory of South African “democracy” and the failure of the “South African Revolution” by comparison to the Chilean experience of the popular overwhelming of Pinochetist reaction – in which the Left found itself fundamentally defeated, even as it attained its cherished victory.

international / gender Thursday August 13, 2009 15:28 by J. Rogue   text 8 comments (last - monday march 15, 2010 06:32)
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Transfeminism developed out of a critique of the mainstream and radical feminist movements. The feminist movement has a history of internal hierarchies. There are many examples of women of color, working class women, lesbians and others speaking out against the tendency of the white, affluent- dominated women’s movement to silence them and overlook their needs. Instead of honoring these marginalized voices, the mainstream feminist movement has prioritized struggling for rights primarily in the interests of white affluent women.

While the feminist movement as a whole has not resolved these hierarchal tendencies, various groups have continued to speak up regarding their own marginalization – in particular, transgendered women. The process of developing a broader understanding of systems of oppression and how they interact has advanced feminism and is key to building on the theory of anarchist feminism.

international / community struggles Thursday August 06, 2009 20:43 by Andrew   text 6 comments (last - thursday august 06, 2009 20:42)
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Michael Dwyer posing with pistols in Bolivia

In any country with a half way critical media, the last few months would have been disastrous for Shell in Ireland. In a crucial period in Shell’s imposition of an experimental gas pipeline on the people of Erris it emerges that Michael Dwyer, one of the security guards on this project, was part of an attempt to trigger a civil war in Bolivia. Soon after that it became clear that at least three others who had worked as security guards at the Shell compound had travelled to Bolivia with Dwyer and were wanted there for questioning. Some, it emerged, had links to fascist organizations in Eastern Europe.



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marxxbakunin.jpg imageΑναρχία, Κράτος, Α&#... Feb 06 16:50 by Κώστας Δεσποινιάδης 0 comments

Σήμερα που ο καπιταλισμός αποκτά όλο και πιο ολοκληρωτικά χαρακτηριστικά, που κράτος και κεφάλαιο αμφότερα γιγαντωμένα επιτίθενται και καταστρέφουν τις ελάχιστες κατακτήσεις των καταπιεσμένων και οδηγούν ολόκληρους πληθυσμούς στην κυριολεκτική τους εκμηδένιση είναι εύλογο, ίσως, το ερώτημα αν τα ανταγωνιστικά κινήματα έχουν την πολυτέλεια να μένουν αγκυλωμένα στις ιστορικές τους διαφορές ή αν θα πρέπει –έστω και υπό το βάρος των συνθηκών έκτακτης ανάγκης που αντιμετωπίζουμε– να ενώσουν τις δυνάμεις τους σε μία αντικαπιταλιστική προοπτική.

630088712949.jpg imageReview of James Speth, The Bridge at the Edge of the World: Capitalism, the Environment, ... Feb 05 14:22 by Wayne Price 0 comments

Speth's The Bridge at the Edge of the World is shown to represent a trend among left-environmentalists: They show that the global ecological crisis is due to capitalism's grow-or-die drive. Yet they do not go on to call for the replacement of capitalism. Unlike ecological radicals, they claim that capitalism could be tweaked to no longer have a need to grow and accumulate.

sk_2.jpg image¿Qué pasó con los kurdos en las negociaciones de Ginebra? Feb 05 04:01 by José Antonio Gutiérrez D. 0 comments

Esta semana iba a darse una reunión Ginebra dentro del marco de las negociaciones indirectas entre el gobierno sirio y las facciones de la “oposición” armada agrupadas en el rimbombante Alto Comité para las Negociaciones. El enviado especial de la ONU para la crisis siria, Staffan de Mistura, decidió postergar la reunión para el 25 de Febrero. Curiosamente, de esta reunión se ha excluido al partido kurdo, el PYD, quienes son, entre otras cosas un actor político importantísimo en el futuro de Siria y la única fuerza que ha combatido en terreno al Estado Islámico. Es paradójico que se boicotee su participación, cuando los medios occidentales han frecuentemente vendido la imagen de los kurdos como los “amigos” de Occidente, cuidándose muy bien de no hablar mucho de los objetivos políticos de este movimiento, y limitando su simpatía a una imagen semi-erotizada de muchachas jóvenes con fusiles

textHow the West Undermined Women’s Rights in the Arab World Feb 02 15:33 by Nicola Pratt 0 comments

This article is based on some of the research that I have conducted over the past two years on women’s activism in Egypt, Lebanon, and Jordan, from independence until the Arab uprisings. I collected over one hundred personal narratives from middle class women activists of different generations. This research was initially framed in terms of what is perceived to be a ‘gender paradox’: despite over a century of women’s activism, why do women in Arab countries continue to face some of the largest gender inequalities in the world?

The Anarkismo network imageConsiderations of the Anarkismo network about the accusations against Michael Schmidt Jan 30 18:31 by Anarkismo network 12 comments

The Anarkismo network has already published a statement that it would wait until all parts of the accusations by Reid Ross and Stephens were published, as well as the answers of M. Schmidt, before making any judgements on the case. Now that this has been forthcoming, as well as two more responses by Reid Ross, we are issuing a second statement to make public our intentions regarding the present situation.

textSedition, Subversion, Sabotage: Jan 28 20:48 by William T. Hathaway 0 comments

We'll be most successful by using both legal and illegal tactics but keeping the two forms separate. Illegal direct action is sometimes necessary to impair the system, impede its functioning, break it in a few places, open up points of vulnerability for coming generations to exploit. As groups we should do only legal resistance. Since we have to assume we are infiltrated and our communications are monitored, illegal acts must be done alone or in small cells without links to the group. Security is essential. Police may have the identity of everyone in the group, but if members are arrested and interrogated, their knowledge will be very limited. The principles of leaderless resistance ( provide the most effective defense for militants.

iconsgallery4.jpg imageLeft to your Own Devices Jan 28 05:00 by Pink Panther 0 comments

This article looks at the way capitalism and consumerism are destroying the resources of the planet, while critiquing mainstream environmentalist responses to this destruction.

womens_lib.png imageAnarchism and the Continuing Struggle for Women's Freedom Jan 27 17:27 by Bongani Maponyane 0 comments

As anarchist-communists, we oppose sexism whenever and wherever it exists, although we also realise that class position differentiates the experience of sexism. We salute all the woman freedom fighters, and the older generation of women, many our mothers, who bear the scars of the gruesome battles in which they stood firm, fighting the oppression imposed on the African native by colonial conquest. There were hard times in the apartheid era, where black women were abused, raped and oppressed: the state did nothing to stop this, but aided it, as the state was part of the system of oppression. History shows that dispossession and systematic dehumanization for the purposes of exploitation and domination were undertaken through the uncontrolled and coercive mayhem of the South African state.

feminismoislam.png imageLa Islamofobia: la cara respetable del neo-fascismo Jan 27 16:27 by José Antonio Gutiérrez D. 1 comments

La islamofobia cumple el fin de naturalizar el imperialismo, el neo-colonialismo y la misión civilizadora de Occidente, a la vez que convierte el racismo, la discriminación y la violencia anti-inmigrante en algo excusable. Los tiempos actuales son de profunda reacción en Europa en todo sentido, sea en la cultura, en los derechos sociales y económicos, en la política. La islamofobia no es más que la banda sonora del ascenso político de una siniestra ultra-derecha global que desprecia todo cuanto huela a progresismo y pasa desapercibida, precisamente, porque todo el mundo está demasiado preocupado de los molestos musulmanes. La islamofobia es, de hecho, una pieza clave en el sistema de dominación.

textThe Davos Blind Eye: How the Rich Eat the Poor and the World Jan 26 17:07 by John McMurtry 0 comments

The just-released Oxfam Davos report An Economy For the 1% which the mass media have ignored arrestingly shows that 62 individuals (388 in 2010) now own more wealth than 50 per cent of the world's population. More shockingly, it reports from its uncontested public sources that this share of wealth by half of the world's people has collapsed by over 40 per cent in just the last five years.

460_0___30_0_0_0_0_0_mos_entrelaadas_de_portinari_1.jpg imageUn Debat sobre la Política d’Aliances Jan 24 20:41 by Rafael V. da Silva 0 comments

Un debat polític sobre la política d’Aliança, amb base a l’experiència i les reflexions realitzades dins d’una organització política anarquista especifista.

kropotkinellerkaos22copia1.jpg imageΟ Κροπότκιν ταξι_... Jan 19 14:54 by Dmitri (αναδημοσίευση) 0 comments

Αυτή είναι μια έκθεση των σημειώσεων της ομιλίας που πραγματοποιήθηκε το 2014 στο Λονδίνο στην Έκθεση Αναρχικού Βιβλίου. Ένα πρόσφατα μεταφρασμένο άρθρο από τον Κροπότκιν το Μάιο του 1890 («Η δράση των μαζών και το άτομο») επισυνάπτεται.

América Latina ha estado sufriendo, un nuevo giro a la derecha, dirigida por súbditos del Pos-Consenso de Washington, e ideológicamente, hacia el eje financiero entre Nueva York y Londres. imageAmérica Latina: vuelta a la oposición de la derecha y estratégica Jan 19 07:45 by BrunoL 0 comments

18 de enero 2016, Bruno Lima Rocha

Somos un continente o en parte dominado, por una herencia sangrienta colonial, a través de las familias europeas, criollismo de vice-reinados, cuyo ejemplo más radical es Brasil, donde los restos de esta elite, tiene poca o ninguna identificación con nuestra gente, porque la opción permanente es el Eurocentrismo y específicamente el anglo- Sajón del mundo contemporáneo.

Até o final da Guerra Fria era mais “fácil”, ainda havia abundante ilusão e fantasia autoritária, como a tese absurda de partido único e formação de vanguardas políticas. imageQue esquerda é essa? Ou porque a posição da CAB está correta – 2 Jan 16 09:29 by BrunoL 0 comments

14 de janeiro de 2016, Bruno Lima Rocha

Como construir um partido político de esquerda sem projeto político? Como falar em socialismo sem uma projeção de sociedade? Como caracterizar uma etapa se não há objetivo finalista, sem uma via estratégica, sem a dimensão tática correspondente? O maximalismo só atende ao nível da filosofia política, mas fazer política de forma séria, consequente e por esquerda prevê um – ou alguns – projetos de acumulação de forças que vão se encontrar ou desencontrar ao longo da via. Desde que o muro caiu a maior parte da esquerda restante, da ex-esquerda, no caso da América Latina do campo classista e nacional-popular, perdera esta dimensão de metas de médio e longo prazo na política e acabam jogando o jogo do liberalismo, mesmo que por tabela.

textRacism: the achilles heel of middle class liberalism Jan 15 03:50 by Kevin Ovenden 0 comments

But wasn’t Charlie Hebdo once something to do with the left, loosely a product of a previous upsurge of social struggle many years ago?

Yes it was. So were Sir Oswald Mosley, Benito Mussolini, Georges Sorel…

baracade11024x793.jpg imageΦεντεραλισμός, Σ_... Jan 13 17:43 by Μ. Μπακούνιν  0 comments

Αλλά έχουμε δει ότι στο τέλος αυτού του στείρου ταξιδιού, η αφαιρετική ικανότητα και δράση του ανθρώπου δεν συναντά παρά ένα μόνο αντικείμενο: τον εαυτό της, αλλά απαλλαγμένο από κάθε περιεχόμενο και στερημένο από κάθε κίνηση, μπροστά στην έλλειψη για υπέρβαση οποιουδήποτε πράγματος, αυτή την ίδια ως αφαίρεση, ως όν απόλυτα ακίνητο και απόλυτα κενό. Θα λέγαμε το απόλυτο Μηδέν, αλλά η θρησκευτική φαντασία λέει: το υπέρτατο Όν, ο Θεός.

tlc.png imageEco-Socialism and Decentralism Jan 11 12:41 by Wayne Price 0 comments

Theorists of the climate-justice movement have been raising decentralist ideas as part of their programs for an ecologically-balanced society. This ecological program means more local democracy, workers’ management of industry, consumer coops, and federations of radically-democratic institutions. Such ideas revive the decentralist ideas of anarchism.

A história dos povos neste contexto fica subordinada ao arranjo temporário entre elites dirigentes e classes dominantes a partir de suas respectivas posições em Estados pivô geopolíticos e Agentes Geoestratégicos. imagePor uma geoestratégia dos povos – 1 Jan 11 08:06 by BrunoL 0 comments

09 de janeiro de 2016, Bruno Lima Rocha

Introdução – Nesta nova série, inicio um conjunto de textos de difusão que visam ganhar a densidade até se tornarem um ensaio posterior. A meta não é necessariamente polemizar de fora para dentro da academia, e sim servir como apoio da frente teórica dentro da corrente para os debates, proposições e perspectivas em termos de política internacional, economia política internacional e relações internacionais. Muitas vezes, diante da impossibilidade teórica, há impossibilidade estratégica, logo, nada se realiza e quase tudo se copia ou mimetiza. A razão desta nova série é aportar uma contribuição para diminuir esta lacuna.

crane_vampire_4.jpg hepimize dayanışma ve direniş dolu bir 2016 diliyor Jan 09 22:18 by Editör Grubu 0 comments

Bu yıl -2015-, ayrıcalıkların olmadığı bir dünya için, eşitliğin ve özgürlüğün dünyası için direnenlerin zor koşullarıyla bitiyor. Ancak 2016’nın öğrendiğimiz ve yüreklerimizdeki yeni dünyayı büyüttüğümüz bir yıl olacağına eminiz., bu alternatifi düşünürken yardımcı bir gereç olmayı umuyor. Bu süreçte okurlarımıza teşekkür ediyor ve katkılarınızı bekliyoruz. [English] [Castellano] [ελληνικά] [Italiano] [العَرَبِية] [Português] [中文] [Kurdî]

crane_vampire_3.jpg, di 2016’an de, ji hemuyan re salek piştgirtî u berxwedan daxwaz dike Jan 09 22:14 by Koma Editor ên 0 comments

Sala 2015’an, ji bo berxwedêrên gerdûnek bêîmtiyaz, ji bo berxwedêrên gerdûn a azadî u wekhevî yê, bi tengasî derbas bu. Lê belê, em bawerin sala 2016, dê bibe salek ku em ê hîn bibin u gerduna nu ya di nav dile xwe de mezintir bikin., hevîdar e ku di fikirandina vê alternatîfe de bibe alîkar. Di vê demajoyê de am spas li xwendevanan dikin u tevkarî jı hemûyan dixwazin. [English] [Castellano] [ελληνικά] [Italiano] [العَرَبِية] [Português] [中文] [Türkçe]

crane_vampire_2.jpg image祝愿所有的朋友们在2016年૆... Jan 07 02:55 by Anarkismo.net编辑团队 0 comments

2015年已经结束了,这一年中我们追求自由和平等,面对了无数的挑战。在我们每一天的新闻中充斥着经济紧缩、帝国斗争、种族主义、法西斯主义、原教旨主义以及资本主义对于工人阶级的压迫和剥削。改革主义者和所谓的保守主义者们所提出的社会改革方案虽然有可能为某些特定社会问题提出些许解决方案,但是由于各种社会改革措施的明显局限性,如何建立一个平等的社会这个最重要的问题始终没有得到解决。 [English] [Castellano] [ελληνικά] [Italiano] [العَرَبِية] [Português] [Kurdî] [Türkçe]

crane_vampire_1.jpg imageO Deseja a Você um 2016 de Solidariedade e Resistência Jan 06 03:27 by Grupo Editorial do 0 comments

Este ano, 2015, terminou com vários desafios para aqueles que defendem um mundo sem privilégios, um mundo de igualdade e liberdade. Mas estamos certos que 2016 será um ano para aprender e contribuir com o crescimento desse novo mundo em nossos corações. O espera ser uma ferramenta útil para ajudar a pensar essa alternativa. Agradecemos nossos leitores e esperamos suas contribuições. [English] [Castellano] [ελληνικά] [Italiano] [العَرَبِية] [中文] [Kurdî] [Türkçe]

crane_vampire.jpg imageأناركيزمو.نت ي... Jan 05 05:23 by هيئة تحرير أناركيزمو.نت 0 comments

انتهى عام 2015 بعدد من التحديات لأولئك المناضلين من أجل عالم دون تمييز، عالم المساواة والحرية، لكننا واثقين أن 2016 سيكون عامًا نتعلم ونساعد فيه على بناء العالم الجديد في قلوبنا، ويتمنى أناركيزمو.نت أن يكون أداة فاعلة مُعينة على التفكير في هذا البديل.
الشكر مقدمًا لقرائنا وفي انتظار مساهماتكم
[English] [ελληνικά] [Italiano] [Castellano] [Português] [中文] [Kurdî] [Türkçe]

berneri1.jpg imageO λίθος και το μονο&... Jan 04 15:32 by Evandro Couto 0 comments

Συζητάμε εδώ την πολιτική σκέψη του Καμίλλο Μπερνέρι -μιας διάσημης, αλλά και άγνωστης προσωπικότητας στους δικούς μας χρόνους του αγώνα, στη γενιά μας, ειδικά στο Πορτογαλικό κοινό- με σκοπό να δικαιώσουμε τη συμβολή του. Έχουμε έτσι την ανάσυρση από τη σκόνη της λήθης των σκέψεων και των αγώνων αυτού του αξέχαστου αναρχικού συντρόφου, ως συμβολή στον παρόντα πολιτικό λόγο καθώς και ως μια πρόκληση για τις αναρχικές τάσεις.

crane_vampire.jpg augura a tutti un 2016 di solidarietà e resistenza Jan 04 14:58 by Anarkismo Editorial Group 0 comments

Quest'anno -il 2015- si è concluso con una serie di sfide che hanno impegnato coloro che si battono per un mondo senza privilegi, un mondo di uguaglianza e libertà. Austerity, guerre imperialiste, razzismo, fascismo, fondamentalismo e sfruttamento quotidiano della classe lavoratrice da parte del capitalismo continuano a imporsi quotidianamente in ogni parte del mondo. [English] [Castellano] [ελληνικά] [العَرَبِية] [Português] [中文] [Kurdî] [Türkçe]

textRiflessioni sul Capodanno Jan 04 00:12 by Lucio Garofalo 0 comments

La riflessione più significativa sul Capodanno la scrisse Antonio Gramsci in giovane età, nel 1916, esattamente un secolo fa. Gramsci aveva ragione quando scriveva che dovrebbe essere Capodanno ogni giorno. Ma senza le stupide convenzioni sociali, gli stereotipi ottusi, il falso perbenismo borghese, il moralismo ed il conformismo ipocrita della società dei consumi di massa, senza i buoni propositi di ogni inizio d'anno che fanno assomigliare la vita umana ad un'azienda commerciale con i suoi consuntivi finali, bilanci e preventivi. Il comunismo dovrà spazzare via anche le inutili e sciocche convenzioni, le date e le ricorrenze vuote di senso. Questi Capodanni, che rappresentano soltanto convenzioni rituali, inducono a credere sul serio in una discontinuità della vita e della storia umana. Mentre non è affatto vero. Sono altri i momenti storici che hanno sancito un salto rivoluzionario, o una discontinuità effettiva. Ad esempio, il 1789 o il 1917...

thumb.jpeg imageΗ δικτατορία που  ... Jan 02 16:00 by Dmitri (αναδημοσίευση) 0 comments

Στις 8 Ιουλίου, το Ευρωκοινοβούλιο με 432 ψήφους υπέρ, 241 κατά και 32 αποχές, ενέκρινε ψήφισμα με το οποίο προετοιμάζεται το έδαφος για την υπογραφή συνθήκης ελεύθερου εμπορίου ανάμεσα στην ΕΕ και τις ΗΠΑ με την επωνυμία «Διατλαντική Εταιρική Σχέση Εμπορίου και Επενδύσεων» (TTIP). Πρόκειται για ένα αποφασιστικό βήμα προς την ολοκλήρωση αυτού που ο Κ. Πολάνυι αποκαλούσε «μεγάλο μετασχηματισμό» της καπιταλιστικής κοινωνίας.

300_0___20_0_0_0_0_0_crane_vampire.jpg imageAnarkismo εύχεται ένα 2016 αλ&... Jan 01 06:05 by Anarkismo Editorial Group 0 comments

Είμαστε σίγουροι ότι το 2016 θα είναι μια χρονιά κατά την οποία θα μάθουμε και θα βοηθήσουμε στην ανάπτυξη ενός νέου κόσμου στις καρδιές μας. Το Anarkismo ελπίζει να αποτελέσει ένα χρήσιμο εργαλείο για να βοηθήσει στην προώθηση αυτής της εναλλακτικής λύσης. Ευχαριστούμε τους αναγνώστες μας σε αυτή τη διαδικασία και περιμένουμε τη συμβολή τους. [English] [Castellano] [Italiano] [العَرَبِية] [Português] [中文] [Kurdî] [Türkçe]

crane_vampire_1.jpg imageAnarkismo les desea a todas y todos un 2016 de solidaridad y resistencia Jan 01 01:59 by Equipo Editorial de Anarkismo 0 comments

Este año, 2015, ha terminado con varios desafíos para quienes buscamos un mundo sin privilegios, un mundo de igualdad y libertad, pero estamos convencidos de que 2016 será un año para aprender y ayudar a crecer ese mundo nuevo que llevamos en nuestros corazones. [English] [ελληνικά] [Italiano] [العَرَبِية] [Português] [中文] [Kurdî] [Türkçe]

crane_vampire.jpg wishes you all a 2016 of solidarity and resistance Jan 01 01:39 by Editorial Group 0 comments

This year -2015- has finished with a number of challenges to those who stand for a world without privilege, a world of equality and liberty but we are sure 2016 will be a year to learn and help grow the new world in our hearts. hopes to be a useful tool to help think this alternative. We thanks our readers in this process and we wait for your contributions. [Castellano] [ελληνικά] [Italiano] [العَرَبِية] [Português] [中文] [Kurdî] [Türkçe]

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