Benutzereinstellungen

Neue Veranstaltungshinweise

Mashriq / Arabia / Iraq

Es wurden keine neuen Veranstaltungshinweise in der letzten Woche veröffentlicht

Kommende Veranstaltungen

Mashriq / Arabia / Iraq | Imperialism / War

Keine kommenden Veranstaltungen veröffentlicht

US refusal to withdraw troops from Iraq is a breach of international law

category mashriq / arabia / iraq | imperialism / war | non-anarchist press author Samstag Februar 08, 2020 22:27author by Andrew G Jones - The Conversation Report this post to the editors

A US strike which killed Iranian general Qassem Soleimani in Baghdad in January, and the counter-strike by the Iranian military on US targets in Iraq, raised serious questions about the legitimate use of force. When military force was used against targets within its territory, Iraq’s sovereignty was breached.

As a country caught in the middle of the long-running feud between the US and Iran, Iraq has already suffered a great deal in this latest escalation. A senior Iraqi militia commander, Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis, was also killed in the US strike.

In the weeks since, thousands of protesters have taken to the streets in Iraq. While some continue to demonstrate against the government, others – many of them supporters of Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr – are demanding the withdrawal of US troops from the country.

The continued US military presence in the country, against the wishes of the Iraqi government and parliament, is a breach of international law.

Force and intervention

Public international law maintains a tight grip on the rules surrounding the use of force. Article 2(4) of the UN Charter prohibits the use of force, except in self-defence against an armed attack or collective action authorised by the UN Security Council.

Beyond this, there are very few truly accepted justifications which a country can rely on to legitimately use force within another’s territory. One exception is a doctrine called “intervention by invitation”, where one country is given express permission to take military action in another country by that country’s government.

Alongside other rules that govern this kind of interaction, there are also rules on when a state overstays its welcome and becomes in breach of its international obligations. For example, the Definition of Aggression, a text adopted by the UN which outlines what is considered aggression under international law, sets out that if the state intervening breaks the conditions, or extends its presence on the territory, this counts as an act of aggression.

This was put forward as a claim in a case between the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Uganda in 2005. The DRC claimed that Uganda’s ongoing use of force on its territory, after it had stopped giving consent, amounted to aggression.

Although in this particular case the International Court of Justice did not find Uganda’s actions were an act of aggression, the court did rule that Uganda had breached the UN Charter’s basic prohibition of force. As a result it was clearly established that a country cannot maintain a military presence within another country after it has been asked to leave.

US refusal to withdraw

The presence of US troops in Iraq dates to the invasion which overthrew Saddam Hussain’s regime in 2003. Whatever the legal status of that conflict, the presence of US forces has been legitimised since that point through the consent of the Iraqi government. In more recent years, American and Iraqi forces have maintained friendly relations, working together to fight the threat of Islamic State.

The closeness of Iraq’s relationship with the US is part of a wider balancing act. Iraq also needs to maintain its relationship with Iran, to which it has become much closer since the fall of Hussein. But since the drone attack which killed Soleimani and al-Muhandis, this balance has shifted. The country’s alliances have been put under increased strain amid growing anti-US sentiment.

In the aftermath of the US strike in January, Iraq’s parliament voted on the future presence of US troops in the country. MPs passed a non-binding resolution stating that the Iraqi government should: “Work to end the presence of any foreign troops on Iraqi soil and prohibit them from using its land, airspace or water for any reason.”

During a subsequent phone call with US secretary of state, Mike Pompeo, Iraq’s prime minister, Adel Abdul-Mahdi, requested a US withdrawal. But instead of heeding the Iraqi authorities’ decision, the US State Department declared that it would not discuss the withdrawal of US troops as their presence in Iraq was “appropriate”. It claimed that there was instead a need for “a conversation between the US and Iraqi governments not just regarding security, but about our financial, economic, and diplomatic partnership.”

Implications under international law

Despite the undeniable power and influence the US has over global events and international policy, the country remains subject to international law. By refusing to withdraw its troops as the Iraqi government requested, the US finds itself at least in breach of Article 2(4) of the UN Charter. A case could also be made that this amounts to an act of aggression.

There is a very real danger of Iraq becoming the battleground for a fight between Iran and the US to which it is not a party. In a country already scarred by decades of conflict, Iraq urgently wants to avoid such a circumstance. As such, it’s now for the US to heed the country’s request and to withdraw its troops in line with its international obligations, and for both the US and Iran to avoid further escalating an already tense situation.

It is up to the international community as a whole to ensure respect of the rule of law. But as the world’s most powerful nation, the US must demonstrate its willingness to comply with its responsibilities and uphold the ideals of international law.

Verwandter Link: https://theconversation.com/us-refusal-to-withdraw-troops-from-iraq-is-a-breach-of-international-law-131088
This page can be viewed in
English Italiano Deutsch
Neste 8 de Março, levantamos mais uma vez a nossa voz e os nossos punhos pela vida das mulheres!

Mashriq / Arabia / Iraq | Imperialism / War | en

Di 25 Feb, 22:47

browse text browse image

boycottturkey1024x551.png imageOur solidarity outside of Turkey and Syria is continual boycott of the Turkish Products and Tourism 19:16 Di 22 Okt by KAF 0 comments

We are against the war, but we support and defending people against the attacks that they face. We offer our solidarity towards those facing invasion and repression.

human_shields_assembled_at_the_serekaniye_border_before_the_invasion._photo__anf_english.jpg imageSolidarity With People In Rojava, Denouncing Turkish State And United States Allies 02:00 Fr 11 Okt by KAF 0 comments


There is no doubt ignoring the experiences of history will lead to the same experiences being repeated. What is happening at the moment in Rojava proves this statement.

turkeyinvadesafrin_jan2018_1.jpg imageSolidarity for Afrin and Rojava against the Turkey State 23:58 Di 30 Jan by KAF 3 comments

No to war, No to dictators and States, No to corporations, No to religions, No to nationalism!

Dear Anarchist Comrades wherever you are,
We, anarchists stress that we are against war, against military attacks and militias. We are strongly against killing civilians and launching attacks against villages, towns and cities killing innocent people discriminating and destroying their places.

df0c1da5b22e4a8fbe74d256ebb68e2a.jpg imageStates at War with Peoples will Lose 09:23 Mi 24 Jan by Devrimci Anarşist Faaliyet 0 comments

Afrin belongs to the peoples of Afrin. Peoples living in Afrin were born in these lands and died in these lands. Living there is not related to any plans or programs. They are not in Afrin as part of a strategy. Afrin, for them is water, bread, food, play, stories, friends, mates, lovers, streets, homes, neighborhoods. But for the state, it is only a strategy. A strategy that does not care about Afrin or the peoples of Afrin. [Türkçe] [Castellano] [Ελληνικά] [Français] [Italiano]

gal_14771.jpg imageThe Turkish army is attacking Yezîdî Kurds and Rojava villages 20:09 Di 25 Apr by KNK 1 comments

According to the latest information, 26 Turkish warplanes attacked Amûd and Geliyê Kersê of Şengal/Sinjar. The bombardment is still going on. It has been learned that prior to the aerial operation, communication networks had been completely cut in Dêrik and its surrounding areas.

150122_842113389166036_7294858716189015531_n.jpg imageVictory to the Rojava Revolution! 20:52 Sa 25 Okt by Melbourne Anarchist Communist Group 0 comments

Leaflet distributed today at a rally and march in Melbourne in solidarity to the Kurdish struggle.

rojava_1.png imageInternational Libertarian-Socialist Statement in Solidarity with the Kurdish Resistance 06:36 So 19 Okt by Johnny 2 comments

For some years now the Kurdish movement has been moving in the direction of libertarian ideas. While not an anarchist movement, this move is a sign that anarchist ideas of freedom and equality through solidarity, our ideas of horizontality and radical direct democracy and our radical critique against the State are not only valid and strong, but are also necessary for movements in order to break away from the authoritarian legacy within the left. It is our duty to express our solidarity with Rojava and the Kurdish movement, because they represent hope in this region and because they are the oppressed fighting the oppressors. Real struggles are never perfect but they carry diverse degrees of potential to bring about a free society. Expressing our solidarity with the revolutionary movement in Rojava means we understand our role is to continue developing the core tenets of our ideas in order to inspire revolutions and revolutionaries all over the world. - Anarkismo.net Editorial Group [Italiano] [Ελληνικά] [Castellano] [Français]

daf_in_koban_10.jpg imageRevolution will win in Kobanê! 16:41 Do 09 Okt by DAF 0 comments

It’s the 24th day of ISIS attacks on Kobanê. While people’s defending forces in all border villages are on human shield sentry for Kobanê against attacks, everyone, everywhere in the region we live, rised up not to let Kobanê fall. [Français] [Italiano]

anarchist_womendafkobane.jpg imageLatest news from Kobanê 21:35 Sa 04 Okt by DAF 3 comments

The Turkish state that is preparing to interfere to avoid the ISIS danger, is at the same time neglecting the offensive made by ISIS supporters within its borders, showing its politics of hypocrisy. [Italiano]

daf_in_kobane_3.jpg imageTurkish anarchists in Syria to support Kurdish people 16:37 Sa 27 Sep by Workers Solidarity Movement 5 comments

Istanbul anarchists along other leftists, feminists, and 'Gezi park types' have managed to cross over into Syria and the northern town of Kobane which is currently threatened by ISIS. [italiano]

more >>

imageRojava after Rojava Dez 27 by Fouâd Oveisy 0 comments

Turkey’s attack on Rojava forced the SDF to choose between its own survival and protecting Kurdish territories, putting the future of the revolution at risk.

imageRequiem for Rojava Dez 21 by Khaled Aboud 0 comments

The announcement of Trump that the US would immediately stop aerial bombardments and withdraw their diplomatic personnel, while their troops would all withdraw within 3 months, officially signalled the end of the Syrian war, a war which has been portrayed as a “civil war” but one in which all of the world participated. While major powers, such as Russia, France, the UK, and the US, and regional powers such as Iran, Israel and Turkey participated directly, they had their Syrian proxies to fight against one another. The conflict, in the first place, wouldn’t have erupted without the decisive funding and support given by Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Turkey and Jordan to a frightful collection of armed jihadist lunatics.

imageThe Saudi-Kurdish love affair Dez 07 by Khaled Aboud 0 comments

As everyone watches in horror and disbelief the unparalleled Saudi atrocities in Yemen and the unspeakable barbaric assassination of the journalist Jamal Kashoggi, the Saudi royals are increasingly isolated in the world. However, in the Middle East, they have made new friends: the Kurdish of Syria.

imageThe battle of Idlib Province in Syria is decisive and crucial for the future of Rojava Sep 08 by Zaher Baher 0 comments

This article is a brief analysing of the future of Rojava in Syria in Line with the attack of Assad’s forces on Idlib’s Province . The battle of Idlib can be a crucial one for all sides who are involve especially for the regime and the Kurdish in Rojava . There are few scenarios that the Kurdish forces there and its self rule administration are facing . There is also a strong possibility after this battle the Kurdish question there can be on the top of Assad and Russia’s agenda to be resolved either way.

imageRojava: The betrayal of a Revolution Jun 15 by Mandy Moussouris 0 comments

The ongoing war in the Middle East, the Arab Spring followed by what seems to be a winter of war that rivals Game of Thrones has seen the death of many a revolutionary and many a revolutionary dream. Within this ongoing war are stories of struggle against tyranny, struggles by ordinary people to gain some sort of control over their lives as they get buffeted between superpowers and ideologies fuelled by greed and underlying neoliberal capitalism. The struggle of the Kurdish people of Rojava is one such story. It is not a new one and it is not a perfect one. It is a story of courage and inspiration, of brave women and men, of complexity and of huge challenges. It is a story of our age, where competing geo-political powers fuel wars in other lands and on other people to further their own interests.

more >>

imageOur solidarity outside of Turkey and Syria is continual boycott of the Turkish Products and Tourism Okt 22 Kurdish-speaking Anarchists Forum & Libertarians Dialogue Group 0 comments

We are against the war, but we support and defending people against the attacks that they face. We offer our solidarity towards those facing invasion and repression.

imageSolidarity With People In Rojava, Denouncing Turkish State And United States Allies Okt 11 Kurdish-speaking Anarchists Forum 0 comments


There is no doubt ignoring the experiences of history will lead to the same experiences being repeated. What is happening at the moment in Rojava proves this statement.

imageSolidarity for Afrin and Rojava against the Turkey State Jan 30 Kurdish-speaking anarchist forum 3 comments

No to war, No to dictators and States, No to corporations, No to religions, No to nationalism!

Dear Anarchist Comrades wherever you are,
We, anarchists stress that we are against war, against military attacks and militias. We are strongly against killing civilians and launching attacks against villages, towns and cities killing innocent people discriminating and destroying their places.

imageStates at War with Peoples will Lose Jan 24 DAF 0 comments

Afrin belongs to the peoples of Afrin. Peoples living in Afrin were born in these lands and died in these lands. Living there is not related to any plans or programs. They are not in Afrin as part of a strategy. Afrin, for them is water, bread, food, play, stories, friends, mates, lovers, streets, homes, neighborhoods. But for the state, it is only a strategy. A strategy that does not care about Afrin or the peoples of Afrin. [Türkçe] [Castellano] [Ελληνικά] [Français] [Italiano]

imageVictory to the Rojava Revolution! Okt 25 Anarkismo 0 comments

Leaflet distributed today at a rally and march in Melbourne in solidarity to the Kurdish struggle.

more >>
© 2005-2020 Anarkismo.net. Unless otherwise stated by the author, all content is free for non-commercial reuse, reprint, and rebroadcast, on the net and elsewhere. Opinions are those of the contributors and are not necessarily endorsed by Anarkismo.net. [ Disclaimer | Privacy ]