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Imperial Echoes - The Salvador Option in Iraq

category mashriq / arabia / iraq | imperialism / war | opinion / analysis author Friday November 05, 2010 05:17author by dara Report this post to the editors

The whistleblowing website WikiLeaks has once again released a flood of classified information, washing away the dominant platitudes of stability in nation-building and revealing the ordinary evil of imperial occupation.

It may not be news for those who live there, but the 400,000 or so military field reports give us the clearest picture yet of the everyday violence that underlies the American occupation.

Commandos with prisoners. From guardian.co.uk
Commandos with prisoners. From guardian.co.uk

Much of the focus is on the Iraqi government and quasi-government’s involvement in the various atrocities; torture by the police, corruption within the paramilitary Sons of Iraq/Awakening Councils and worst of all; mass torture and extrajudicial killings by the Wolf Brigade, the Special Police Commandos of the Interior Ministry. The embattled Al-Maliki has attempted to shift the focus onto the murder of civilians by private contractors, but there is no political element within Iraq that is not culpable for atrocities. Although much of the media has tried to blame the atrocities on local sectarianism, we can find in the leaks much that resonates with previous American interventions. These are the echoes of imperialism.

For the United States, the most damning revelation is of Frago 242[1], a standing order that instructed US personnel to report evidence of Iraqi security service torture of prisoners to higher authorities, but to take no further action unless instructed[2]. It is not clear whether this indifference was due to a desire to expedite matters through ‘harsh’ methods, or a matter of political calculus, but 6 years on from the Abu Ghraib scandal, the United States administration remains a conscious and willing sponsor of torture.

For those on the Left, this will not be startling. The project of building and supporting adjunct administrations in resistant territory has often led to such methods; they are not exception or aberration, they are a direct result of the situation and the goals and capacities of the imperial power. Most prominent in the media are the Wolf Brigade of Special Police Commandos.[3] These paramilitary units augment the regular police and army and were originally established in mid 2004. Police Commandos were formed from Saddam-era Republican Guards and special forces, and the units even maintain similar uniforms.

The logs show that these groups were notorious for their use of torture, although it was widespread across the Iraqi security services. The reports are shocking for their volume, with over 1156 reports of abuse. Limbs are broken. Detainees are burnt with cigarettes. Shocked with electric wires.[4] Bored through by electric drills. Beaten with electric cables. Hung by the wrists and forced to confess to terrorist acts. and that police would often threaten to turn detainees over to the Wolves if they did not cooperate. Parents are even said to warn their children to behave in case the Wolves get them.

Such details echo the recent history of American interventions. This was highlighted in a Newsweek article from 2005 that reported discussions within military circles about utilising ‘The Salvador Option’ to take the offensive against the insurgency.

"Following that model, one Pentagon proposal would send Special Forces teams to advise, support and possibly train Iraqi squads, most likely hand-picked Kurdish Peshmerga fighters and Shiite militiamen, to target Sunni insurgents and their sympathizers, even across the border into Syria, according to military insiders familiar with the discussions. It remains unclear, however, whether this would be a policy of assassination or so-called "snatch" operations, in which the targets are sent to secret facilities for interrogation."[5]

The motivation for taking this option was the unreliability of the standard forces in Iraq. In numerous instances, the US found that the security services of the new Iraqi state were simply unable to fight. A RAND report notes that during confrontations in early 2004, “many in the ISF (ICDC, IPS, and NIA) proved unable or unwilling to fight. This led to programmatic setbacks and to a refocusing of the coalition’s force generation efforts on leadership and specialist training.”[6]

Such failures instigated discussions within the Coalition over the establishment of a “third force”, that lay “somewhere between civilian police and armed forces”.[7] The debate over shifting to this third force arose for both the police service and the ICDC (later National Guard), although neither were selected for the role.[8] The recurrence of the debate seems to indicate that certain members of the Coalition Provisional Authority had a reasonably clear idea of the solution they needed, they were looking for where it could come from. Ultimately, various units capable of dealing with ‘high-end’ violence were formed by the CPA, and the Interior Minister Faleh Naqeeb assigned his uncle, Adnan Thabit to build special police commando battalions with personnel from the previous special forces and Republican Guard.[9] After General Petraeus’ aide Colonel James Coffman investigated the fledgling unit, the police commandos were built up and incorporated into the security services to take on the work that the regular forces could not.[10] Petraeus provided the commandos with money, men and weapons, and assigned Colonel James Steele to work with them.[11]

‘The Salvador Option’ was indeed pursued, and pursued very literally. Steele had acquired the requisite experience for the role in Central America, having served as the commander of the US Military Advisory Group in El Salvador. This group of 55 Special Forces Advisors had trained Salvadoran units such as the Atlacatl Battalion, which was behind the notorious El Mozeto Massacre[12] Such groups were responsible for much of the torture, rape and massacres in the conflict.[13] US advisors were fully aware of the actions of their proteges.[14]

Another Latin American echo is Steven Casteel, a former DEA Chief of Intelligence who helped form the Special Police Commandos in his role as Senior Advisor to the Interior Ministry. He brought to that position the experience of many years in the struggle against ‘narco-terrorism’ in Peru, Bolivia and Colombia. In Colombia he had worked with ‘Los Pepes’, the vigilante group that waged war against Pablo Escobar of the Medellin drug cartel. Los Pepes were themselves founded by the Cali cartel, rival drug smugglers, and the death of Escobar allowed the Cali to corner the drugs trade.[15] Led by Carlos Castano, members of Los Pepes would later form the AUC, the right-wing paramilitaries that are behind many of the attacks against workers and peasants in the ongoing Colombian civil war. Casteel had worked with Centra Spike, an incarnation of the US Army Intelligence Support Activity which had passed information onto Los Pepes. The Colombians used this information to carry out assassinations of Escobar’s associates and relatives.[16]

Similarly, John Negroponte, who was ambassador to Iraq in 2004 and 2005, the time of the establishment of the ‘third force’ had previously served as ambassador to Honduras from 1981 to 1985. In Central America he had displayed considerable career competence; energetic in channeling weapons to the Contras in the Nicaraguan civil war, and discrete about the various human rights abuses being carried out by his close contacts in the Honduran regime.[17] Similar traits have clearly been called for within Iraq.

Torture is not the worst of it. As Max Fuller has noted[18], where the Special Police Commandos went, bodies soon surfaced. In Mosul, Samarra and Baghdad, mass graves of tortured and executed abductees were found soon after the Wolf Brigade began operations, with civilians directly accusing the Interior Ministry commandos of the murders. The Ministry and police typically claim that the victims were off-duty soldiers, murdered by terrorists, who had been dressed as soldiers or police. From an article by Nicolas Davies:
After Special Police Commandos were first deployed in Baghdad in April, 14 farmers were found in a shallow grave on May 5, 2005, with their right eyeballs removed and other signs of torture, after they were seen being arrested at a vegetable market. Another incident 10 days later, in which eight bodies were found in a garbage dump, prompted Hareth al-Dhari, the secretary general of the Association of Muslim Scholars, to accuse the Interior Ministry directly. “This is state terrorism by the Ministry of Interior,” he claimed. The defense minister responded by blaming “terrorists wearing military uniforms.”[19]

Similar stories came from an Iraqi doctor, Yasser Salihee, who investigated some of the deaths, speaking to witnesses and officials, before he was shot dead at a US checkpoint. In his investigations, he found convincing evidence of Interior Ministry culpability in extrajudicial murders. The victims had been tortured and killed in the same way:

"In most cases, the dead men looked as if they'd been whipped with a cord, subjected to electric shocks or beaten with a blunt object and shot to death, often with single bullets to their heads.
Marks on the bodies were similar to the injuries found on prisoners who were rescued from secret Interior Ministry jails by representatives of the Iraqi ministry for human rights, according to family accounts and medical records....[According to eyewitnesses] many of the dead were apprehended by large groups of men driving white Toyota Land Cruisers with police markings. The men were wearing police commando uniforms and bulletproof vests, carrying expensive 9-millimeter Glock pistols and using sophisticated radios”.[20]

Such occurrences were not at all uncommon. Bodies were regularly found with the tell-tale signs; handcuffed, tortured, shot in the head. It is unlikely that the true body-count will ever be known.[21] There were several brigades of Special Commandos, variously named ‘Wolf’, ‘Tiger’, ‘Thunder’ and ‘Scorpion’ and each of these comprised of three battalions.[22] By following the stories of abductions and mass grave exhumations, Max Fuller has found direct correlations with the movements of the battalions across Iraq.[23]

Intimidation plays a major role in their activity. In addition to the red berets and brigade armbands, police commandos wear sunglasses, balaclavas and leather gloves. They brutalise detainees in public view and in front of supporting US military.[24] The first commander, Adnan Thabit, even had his own reality TV show, ‘Terrorism in the Grip of Justice’, which showcased detainee confessions.

"They tremble on camera, stumble over their words and look at the ground as they confess to everything from contract murders to sodomy. The program's clear message is that there is now a force more powerful than the insurgency: the Iraqi government, and in particular the commandos, whose regimental flag, which shows a lion's head on a camouflage background, is frequently displayed on a banner behind the captives."[25]

In these videos, it is as much fear as guilt that is on display. We now know with certainty of the systematic torture that produces fear and guilt alike. The Special Police are not detectives, but thugs. Their methods are to intimidate, to show that they can strike, abuse and kill without fear of reprisal. This is counter-insurgency, it is the work of cowing and terrifying a population, of showing them that they are powerless.

In Iraq as elsewhere, the United States has found great success in the role of the backseat driver, allowing local allies to take on the dirty work that comes with counter-insurgency. The switch to ‘The Salvador Option’ indicates precisely the desire of the United States to establish a proxy nation that will support US objectives and interests. The careers of Steele, Casteel and Negroponte all pay respect to the success of this modus operandi. As too does the Central American participation in the war and occupation; troops from Honduras, Nicaragua, Dominican Republic and El Salvador all served in the US-led coalition in Iraq.

There is continuity between Central America and Iraq because there is a larger continuity; Iraq is a contemporary stage in American global power. It is an ongoing project, and power at the highest level is won through violence at all levels. It is won through murder, torture, rape and massacre. The mainstream media will rarely relay the victims’ cries, but, if we listen, we can hear the echoes.


References

[1] Reports of detainee abuse can be found here: http://wikileaks.org/search/?q=abuse The Guardian video gives a good overview of the extent http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/video/2010/oct/23/iraq-...go242
[2] Examples that specifically mention this order can be found at http://wikileaks.org/id/D54FB2FF-2E9D-47EE-A82A-7CA86D4...2C55/ and
http://wikileaks.org/id/88029AA5-6833-404A-826A-BD586F8...9FE0/
[3] For instance: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/oct/28/iraq-war-lo...p=239
[4] http://wikileaks.org/id/EF08110E-7344-4605-87FF-FA397EC...F8F3/
[5] http://www.newsweek.com/2005/01/07/the-salvador-option.html
[6] pp21, 40, Rathmell et al, ‘Developing Iraq’s Security Sector’, RAND Corporation, 2005. Available at: http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2005/RAND_MG365.pdf
[7] pp48, ibid.
[8] pp39 & 48, ibid
[9] See n70, pp49, ibid and Maas, P., ‘The Way of the Commandos’ New York Times, 1 May, 2005. Available online at:
http://www.nytimes.com/2005/05/01/magazine/01ARMY.html?...tion=
[10] ‘New factor in Iraq: irregular brigades fill the void’, Wall Street Journal, 16 February, 2005. Part of the article is available at:
http://www.blackfive.net/main/2005/08/colonel_james_c.html and pp17, Jr. Maj. W. Brooks, ‘Iraqi Ministry of Interior Forces: A Case Study to examine their likely effectiveness when the United States and Coalition Forces Depart’ US Army Master’s Thesis, Kansas 2006. Available at: http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?Location=U2&doc=Ge...51281
[11] The Way of the Commandos’, ibid and http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/gangsofiraq/int....html
[12] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlacatl_Battalion
[13] Chomsky, N., ‘The Crucifixion of El Salvador’. Available at: http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Chomsky/ChomOdon_ElSa....html
[14] Blum, W., ‘El Salvador 1980-1994: Human Rights, Washington Style’. Available at: http://www3.uakron.edu/worldciv/pascher/salvador.html
[15] See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cali_Cartel#Los_Pepes for references.
[16]http://globalresearch.ca/articles/FUL506A.html
[17] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Negroponte#Ambassador...85.29
[18] http://globalresearch.ca/articles/FUL506A.html
[19] http://www.onlinejournal.com/artman/publish/article_598...shtml
[20] The original article is not available online, but has been copied onto a discussion forum: http://www.aliraqi.org/forums/showthread.php?t=47636
[21] For a round up of these stories, see Fuller, M., ‘For Iraq, “The Salvador Option” becomes a Reality’, Global Research 2 June 2005. Available at: http://globalresearch.ca/articles/FUL506A.html. A useful letter from Sen. D. Kuchinich includes a round-up of relevant news-stories: http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article13558.htm
[22]Iraqi Ministry of Interior Forces’, ibid.
[23] ‘For Iraq, “The Salvador Option” becomes a Reality’, ibid.
[24} The Way of the Commandos’, ibid.
[25]One of the videos can be seen at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gKRjrC_d0iA

Adnan Thabit (big man in sweatshirt) & James Steele (R). From nytimes.com
Adnan Thabit (big man in sweatshirt) & James Steele (R). From nytimes.com

Steve Casteel
Steve Casteel

Scorpion Brigade Police Commandos. From bbc.co.uk
Scorpion Brigade Police Commandos. From bbc.co.uk

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Issue #3 of the Newsletter of the Tokologo African Anarchist Collective

Front page

Elementos da Conjuntura Eleitoral 2014

The experiment of West Kurdistan (Syrian Kurdistan) has proved that people can make changes

[Chile] EL FTEM promueve una serie de “jornadas de debate sindical”

Ukraine: Interview with a Donetsk anarchist

The present confrontation between the Zionist settler colonialist project in Palestine and the indigenous working people

Prisões e mais criminalização marcam o final da Copa do Mundo no Brasil

An Anarchist Response to a Trotskyist Attack: Review of “An Introduction to Marxism and Anarchism” by Alan Woods (2011)

هەڵوێستی سەربەخۆی جەماوەر لە نێوان داعش و &

Contra a Copa e a Repressão: Somente a Luta e Organização!

Nota Pública de soldariedade e denúncia

Üzüntümüz Öfkemizin Tohumudur

Uruguay, ante la represión y el abuso policial

To vote or not to vote: Should it be a question?

Mayday: Building A New Workers Movement

Anarchist and international solidarity against Russian State repression

Argentina: Atentado y Amenazas contra militantes sociales de la FOB en Rosario, Santa Fe

Réponses anarchistes à la crise écologique

50 оттенков коричневого

A verdadeira face da violência!

The Battle for Burgos

Face à l’antisémitisme, pour l’autodéfense

Reflexiones en torno a los libertarios en Chile y la participación electoral

Mandela, the ANC and the 1994 Breakthrough: Anarchist / syndicalist reflections

Melissa Sepúlveda "Uno de los desafíos más importantes es mostrarnos como una alternativa real"

Mashriq / Arabia / Iraq | Imperialism / War | en

Sat 20 Sep, 09:57

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oabubakralbaghdadi570.jpg imageWhat do we think about the current crisis of Iraq? 21:25 Tue 24 Jun by Kurdish Anarchists Forum 0 comments

The Iraq crisis has been continued for decades while it has been under the power of Saddam Hussein or under the “current democratic Regime” since the invasion of 2003. There were no freedom, no social justice; no equality and also little opportunity for those who were independent from the political parties who were in power. In addition to existing brutality and discrimination against women and the ordinary people a very big gap was created between the rich and poor, making the poor even poorer and the rich richer. [Italiano]

textPalestine-Israel, History's wheels turn faster and scream as blood does not oil the axes enough* 23:23 Mon 26 Aug by Ilan S. 0 comments

The turmoil in our region expresses the melting of world history as we knew it. It accelerates before it reaches its end as the axes of the old order cannot hold it any more. The Zionist settler colonialist bridgehead of the developed imperial countries in the cradle of human culture at the east of the Mediterranean Sea is being eroded by the resistance of the indigenous inhabitants who are recruiting supporters from all over the world. The cracks in neoliberal global capitalism, which seemed to have reached its ultimate victory just a few years ago when the end of history was declared, are pointing to the real end of the history of egoistic and alienated class society. In the day-to-day struggle here, it is still hard to discern the cracks in the structure of the system, but you can already smell it in the clouds of tear gas at the weekly demos and feel the ground tremor under your feet. [Italiano]

textPalestine-Israel, Some activities the Anarchists Against the Wall initiative involved with lately 17:23 Tue 15 Feb by Ilan S. 0 comments

There are four main areas of struggles the AAtW activists are involved with: Joint struggle with communities that invite us to join, like Bil'in and other struggles against the separation fence. Other joint struggles against occupation and settler colonialists like Nabi Salih. Joint struggles with wider coalitions like the Sheikh Jarrah coalition and South Hebron. The fourth is within Israel, like prison and jail solidarity, Al Araqeeb and Lod. It seems that our confrontational and direct-action mode of struggle is being adopted by more and more Israeli radicals.

textIraqi trade union leader on the current situation in Iraq 20:28 Wed 03 Oct by Manuel Baptista 0 comments

Falah Alwan, president of the Federation of Workers Councils & Unions in Iraq was recently on a short visit to Lisbon to gather some support for the workers' resistance inside Iraq.

textIsrael: "Occupation 40" - first actions in Tel Aviv 16:48 Wed 06 Jun by Ilan Shalif 1 comments

The 6 days of actions to commemorate the atrocities of the 40 years of Israeli occupation from the 1967 war started in Tel Aviv this afternoon, after an appetizer in the form of nightly hanging of placards during the last few weeks.

text6 days of protests to mark 40 years of occupation 18:50 Tue 05 Jun by Kibush 40 0 comments

For six days, June 5 to 10 - corresponding to the days of the 1967 War - a wide spectrum of events will take place, including exhibitions, demonstrations, theatre plays, academic conferences etc., in order to place a the occupation and the millions suffering under its yoke on the public agenda. June 9 and 10 had been declared as International Days of Protest Against the Israeli Occupation, and we will hold The main march and rally on Saturday, June 9.

textItaly: "Resistance, disobedience, solidarity" - an evening with an Israeli refusni 17:09 Tue 21 Nov by FdCA Fano 0 comments

On Monday 20th November 2006 at the Istituto Tecnico-Commerciale Battisti in Fano, eastern Italy, with Lior Volinytz, a 19-year-old Israeli refusnik and activist in the Anarchists Against the Wall initiative.

textIsrael, Direct action near the border of Gaza Strip 01:29 Sun 19 Nov by Ilan S. 0 comments

It happened when the Zionist leftist peace now (who refused to join the previous Saturday more radical left demonstration against the massacre in Beit Hanun) had their demonstration and at Erez road block. 25 activists organized by the anarchists against the wall initiative traveled to the region bordering the Gaza strip. When the boring speeches started at the peace now not far away demonstration, we entered a compound of army tools of war - about 50 heavily armored soldiers carriers and 5 D9s (of the model that crashed to death Rachel Cury). We climbed on two of the carriers and placed around pictures, banners, and other materials representing massacred people. The soldiers on guard there tried to make us go away but we just ignored their commands. Police officers who came there just asked to see our ID cards, but surprisingly did noting more.

text655,000 Dead in Iraq since Invasion 17:23 Fri 13 Oct by Anarcho 0 comments

According to a new study published by a medical journal between 420,000 and 790,000 Iraqis have died as a result of war and political violence since the beginning of the US-UK invasion in March, 2003, with 655,000 considered the most likely figure.

textStatement on al-Badil article 16:51 Mon 11 Sep by Alternative Libertaire 0 comments

On 27th July 2006, Alternative Libertaire (France) distributed a text entitled "News from Lebanon: the Israeli attack" by our Lebanese comrades, Al-Badil al-Chouyouii al-Taharrouri (Libertarian Communist Alternative). This text denounced the Israeli war, Western plans for a Great Middle East, and criticized Hezbollah as a religious and reactionary organization.

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imageThe wonders of the desperate gamble that Netanyahu lost Aug 26 by Ilan S. 0 comments

To keep Hamas on its legs again after the Egyptian closure forced it to its knees and to compromise with the West Bank Palestinian Authority, Netanyahu started a war that was supposed to set Hamas back on its feet, though much weaker than before the closure.

textKurdish "Terrorists" Rescue Yezidis Aug 15 by PaulB 0 comments

The US special forces finally sent to Mount Sinjar in Northern Iraq to assess a mission to rescue the threatened Yezidis this morning [Thursday 14 August], reported that most of the displaced population had already been rescued in the previous days. What is not being widely reported is the identity of the Kurdish forces who secured the northern side of the mountain and opened a safe passage for the threatened Yezidi civilians, through the Syrian territory they control to Dohuk in the north of the Kurdish Autonomous region in Iraq.

Embarrassingly for the US, arriving on its white charger to save the day, only to discover they are far too late, the saviours of the Yezidis are the Turkish Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) and their Syrian Kurdish People’s Protection Units (YPG) allies. The PKK are officially on the US and EU “terrorist” lists and the autonomous Syrian region defended by the YPG is subject to blockade by ISIS to the South and West, Turkey to the North and the corrupt Kurdish Regional Government (KRG) regime in Kurdish Northern Iraq to the East.

textIsrael burned the stew Aug 02 by Ilan S. 0 comments

The present Gaza war was started before the actual shooting, by Egypt's blockade of the Gaza Strip, intended to break the rule of Hamas due to it being a part of the Islamic Brotherhood movement. [Italiano] [Türkçe]

imageIsrael/Palestine: Background to the present conflict Jul 27 by Ilan S. 0 comments

Egypt insists on dissolving the rule of the Muslim Brotherhood offshoot, Hamas, in the Gaza Strip. Israel "just" wants to sabotage the yielding/compromise by Hamas to the Palestinian West Bank Authority. The relevant political context for the present round begins in November 2012, with the agreement between Israel and Hamas under Egyptian sponsorship. [Italiano] [Português]

textSyria: the Struggle Continues – “Day of Rage Against Al-Qaeda & Assad” Jan 19 by TŘÍDNÍ VÁLKA 0 comments

Since nearly three years that an uprising broke out in Syria (as a local materialization of the upheavals shaking the whole regions of Maghreb and Mashreq) most of the reactions, comments and critics from militant structures which claim to be revolutionary, internationalist, communist, anarchist… go in the same direction: doubts about what happens, doubts about essential material determinations that give birth to the movements that develop in front of our eyes, doubts about the class nature of these events, doubts about the potentially subversive content of struggles of our class when it doesn’t wave the “good” flags, etc. [Português] [Français] [Italiano]

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imageWhat do we think about the current crisis of Iraq? Jun 24 KAF 0 comments

The Iraq crisis has been continued for decades while it has been under the power of Saddam Hussein or under the “current democratic Regime” since the invasion of 2003. There were no freedom, no social justice; no equality and also little opportunity for those who were independent from the political parties who were in power. In addition to existing brutality and discrimination against women and the ordinary people a very big gap was created between the rich and poor, making the poor even poorer and the rich richer. [Italiano]

text6 days of protests to mark 40 years of occupation Jun 05 0 comments

For six days, June 5 to 10 - corresponding to the days of the 1967 War - a wide spectrum of events will take place, including exhibitions, demonstrations, theatre plays, academic conferences etc., in order to place a the occupation and the millions suffering under its yoke on the public agenda. June 9 and 10 had been declared as International Days of Protest Against the Israeli Occupation, and we will hold The main march and rally on Saturday, June 9.

textStatement on al-Badil article Sep 11 AL 0 comments

On 27th July 2006, Alternative Libertaire (France) distributed a text entitled "News from Lebanon: the Israeli attack" by our Lebanese comrades, Al-Badil al-Chouyouii al-Taharrouri (Libertarian Communist Alternative). This text denounced the Israeli war, Western plans for a Great Middle East, and criticized Hezbollah as a religious and reactionary organization.

textLebanon- The Smoke, Anguish and Terror of a Fascist Attack Sep 02 Grupo Qhispikay Llaqta, Perú 1 comments

The anarchists of Peru and the rest of the world oppose the fascist attacks of the Israeli State against the Palestinian and Lebanese peoples. We refuse to follow reformist or reactionary positions that call for the formation of a new Palestinian state- a state that even if established could only survive subject to the mandates of American imperialism. Instead, we support and instigate the class struggle in the region as a means toward the eventual foundation of an Anarchist Federation, which in turn is the only way to secure a truly humane and dignified existence for the working class of these countries.

textOn the slaughter in the Middle East Aug 19 Anarkismo 19 comments

«Being slaves of God, the people owe to be, also, slaves of the Church and the State, insofar as the State has been blessed by the Church» Michael Bakounin

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